Featured Plant – Western Red Cedar

Western Red Cedar (Thuja plicata). Cedar has been an important plant ally to many Native American groups, but to the Coast Salish it was a source of life: “Cedar is lovingly referred to as ‘Mother’ or ‘tree of Life’ because it provides for people in seemingly unlimited ways from their birth to death. Cedar is used for anything from medicine to shelter to clothing.”[1] as well as for baskets, canoes, totem poles, tools, dishes, fishing equipment, and ceremonial items, spirit whistles and paddles, to start fires, and much more.[2] Cedar defined the Salish as it dominated their landscape; it “has been called ‘the cornerstone of northwest coast Indian culture’ and the large-scale use of its wood and bark delineates the cultural boundary of the northwest coast peoples within its range.”[3]

            Cedar offers many gifts as a physical and energetic medicine. The use of local resinous and aromatic plants as incense or smudge in sacred practice is a tradition found in many parts of the world. The smoke from cedar, when burned in spiritual or religious context, stimulates energetic movement, clearing out old, stale energy, and promotes a shift in consciousness, a way of connecting with the divine: “Smoke…is used both to create sacred space and to communicate with Spirit. It is a way of sending out prayers and giving thanks. Think of the smoke as making your thoughts and intentions visible as they’re being sent out to Spirit.”[4]  What’s more, there is some new evidence suggesting that burning certain types of plant material in an enclosed room can kill a significant amount of airborne bacteria, indicating the ability to physically cleanse a space. Plant smoke can also promote physical healing. The Chinese Medicine practice of moxibustion uses smoke from herbs near acupuncture points to stimulate healing, or in one fascinating example, to turn breech babies. A similar Coast Salish practice uses cedar bark “as moxibustion over arthritic or painful areas of the body to promote healing and reduce pain.”[5]

            A powerful anti-fungal and anti-viral as a topical preparation, cedar contains some toxic chemicals and should mainly be reserved as an herbal remedy for external use. When used properly under the direction of an herbalist or naturopath, it acts as a stimulus in the body, stimulating the immune system, smooth muscles, and the vascular capillary beds.

In the islands, I often see the red cedars growing entwined with Douglas-fir trees—the Doug-fir was usually there first, but the cedar moves its roots under and slowly works to dominate the space, eventually killing the fir. Cedar teaches us that destruction is often a part of transformation as it shapes the landscape of our forests in this way. Cedar has traditionally been looked to as a plant for protection. The Salish worked with it as physical protection: “The tips were mashed and held in the mouth when working with a corpse to prepare it for burial as protection against the fumes. Fresh limbs were picked and scorched to sweep a house after removing a corpse.”[6] Their use of cedar during the death process reveals one of cedar’s other roles, as “guardian for safe travels from the spiritual world to the physical world at birth, or from the physical to the spiritual world at death.”[7] Red cedar’s presence is powerful medicine, said to impart vivid dreams to those who sleep under it[8] and known “to be so strong a person could receive strength by standing with his or her back to the tree.”[9]

 Walking among old growth cedars, many of which have lived through fires, we can continue to connect to and experience the power of these majestic trees and see in them these qualities of strength, perseverance, and transformation.

By Kristy Bredin, Herbalist

www.kristybredin.com


[1] Elise Krohn, Wild Rose and Western Red Cedar: The Gifts of the Northwest Plants

[2] Jim Pojar and Andy MacKinnon, Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast

[3] Jim Pojar and Andy MacKinnon, Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast

[4] Robin Rose Bennet, Healing Magic

[5] Steven Foster and Christopher Hobbs, Peterson Field Guides: Western Medicinal Plants and Herbs

[6] Elise Krohn, Wild Rose and Western Red Cedar: The Gifts of the Northwest Plants

[7] Robin Rose Bennet, Healing Magic

[8] Steven Foster and Christopher Hobbs, Peterson Field Guides: Western Medicinal Plants and Herbs

[9] Jim Pojar and Andy MacKinnon, Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast

Featured Plant – Yerba Buena

Yerba Buena(Satureja or Clinopodium douglasii) is our native perennial, evergreen mint. You will find Yerba Buena, with its square stalk and rough-textured, alternate leaves (characteristic of mint-family plants), trailing along the forest floor and its edges throughout the year. This earthy, aromatic mint was used by the Coast Salish as a strewing herb–it was laid across the earthen floors of their homes to freshen the air as it was stepped on. Yerba Buena got its common name in the early days of Spanish exploration on the Pacific coast. The Spanish missionary priests in California learned about its wide range of medicinal uses and gave it the name “yerba buena,” meaning “good plant” in Spanish.[1] Before colonization, the Salish had numerous uses for the plant: “The Halq’emeylem of Kuper Island mixed the leaves of this plant with Lomatium nudicaule to make a tea for colds. The Saanich made a tea from the leaves which was thought to be good for the blood. When hunting for deer, yerba buena leaves were crushed and rubbed on the body to disguise human odor.”[2] Highly valued as a panacea and tonic herb among native people throughout the plant’s Pacific-coase range, Yerba Buena was also used like many other mint-family herbs for upset stomach and to treat colds and flus by helping to reduce fever and encourage sweating. With antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, and pain-relieving properties, it is not surprising that Chumash medicine woman Cecilia Garcia recommends a variety of additional uses, such as for diarrhea, “parasitic worm infections, mostly tape worm…stomach ache, gas, colic in babies, for cold, fevers, toothache, insomnia, urinary tract problems, to promote menstruation and for menstrual cramps.”[3]

            A mild and pleasant herb, Yerba Buena has long been enjoyed simply for its flavor, including by the Hudson Bay trappers[4] who were early settlers in the Northwest. My favorite way to prepare Yerba Buena tea is by decocting it: add a handful of fresh or dried leaves to a quart of cold water and bring it to a low simmer or keep it on heat for 20 minutes to an hour. I do this using my cast-iron tea pot and leaving it to steep on a low-heat wood-fire stove; a low and slow crock pot steep is another great option. This makes for a rich, nourishing and flavorful preparation. Herbalist Michael Moore recommends steeping it with hibiscus for a summer sun tea.

Yerba buena has been so much appreciated in places where it grows, by newcomers and natives, that one Pacific coast city was known by the plant’s name until 1847.[5] It’s now called San Francisco.

When new to identifying plants in the wild, it’s important to get a couple of good field guides, such as Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast by Pojar and Mackinnon and the Peterson’s field guides. Be aware of toxic and poisonous plants in our area. Always be 100% sure of the identification of wild plants you intend to use for food and medicine and that you know how to safely prepare them. It’s also important to honor land permissions and consider your impact when harvesting herbs in the wild. Please explore and observe these plants during your time in Moran State Park but refrain from harvesting them there. If harvesting in another location, be sure you have permission to harvest. Never harvest more than 10% of a plant population in an area to encourage sustainable re-growth.“


[1] Jim Pojar and Andy MacKinnon, Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast

[2] Jim Pojar and Andy MacKinnon, Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast

[3] Cecilia Garcia and James D. Adams, Jr., Healing with Medicinal Plants of the West

[4] Jim Pojar and Andy MacKinnon, Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast

[5] Jim Pojar and Andy MacKinnon, Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast

Contributed by Kristy Bredin

Featured Plant – Douglas Fir

Every year in May and June one of the continent’s tallest trees and an emblem of this region, our beloved Douglas-Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), starts to grow its new tips for the year. These young and tender tips are one of the main ways herbalists and Pacific Northwesterners like to use this plant as food and medicine. You’ll notice them as bright green extensions at the ends of the branches, easily distinguishable from the darker older growth needles. Some of the keys to telling Douglas-Fir apart from other conifers is the rounded needle display, with two white stripes running down the length of the underside of the needles, and downward-hanging cones with bracts that look like mouse tails, not to mention the deeply furrowed bark on the larger trees. 

The young and tender tips can be eaten in small quantities. You will get a burst of sour flavor, indicating this plant’s high vitamin-C content. The later season tips can also be used as a flavoring agent or in medicine, but they are more bitter in flavor. With its highly aromatic, antimicrobial volatile oils (terpenes), Douglas-fir tip medicine has an affinity for working in the lung and urinary tract and has been traditionally used as a general tonic. Helpful in clearing the airways as well as phlegm and excessive mucus, Douglas-Fir tip preparations can be used with coughs, seasonal colds, and flu. The tips can be taken in tea, tincture, syrup, or I like to make a delicious elixir with them, steeping them in alcohol and honey. You could also use Fir tips in a steam or in salve as a chest rub to breathe the volatile oils directly into the lungs.

More than just the tips, many parts of this tree can be used for healing. The pitch is a profound sealant, a technology used by the Salish, and is highly antimicrobial and antifungal, making a great salve to seal and heal injuries. I have used Fir-pitch or Fir-pitch salves for split-open wounds with amazing results–the skin knit back together within a day or two and healed quickly. Whether cracked hands and feet, burns, or dry skin from sun exposure, it’s a handy salve to have around. (Be mindful and test it out on a small patch of skin before using a bunch–it can be somewhat irritating.) When harvesting pitch from a Doug-fir tree, leave some around the tree’s injury so that it can continue to provide healing support for the tree itself. Traditionally used as a topical in cases of rheumatism, Fir washes and salves can also be warming and stimulating and help increase circulation to stiff joints and muscles. 

Douglas-Fir is a beautiful plant to use in a ritualistic way. Many cultures throughout the world have a tradition of using boughs or branches for clearing energy or as part of a transitional experience. The Salish used fir boughs similarly in cleansing, bereavement and womanhood ceremonies. 

There are many ways that we can bring Douglas-fir medicine into our lives as we explore and learn new ways of engaging with our landscape. When new to identifying plants in the wild, it’s important to get a couple of good field guides, such as Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast by Pojar and Mackinnon and the Peterson’s field guides. Be aware of toxic and poisonous plants in our area. Always be 100% sure of the identification of wild plants you intend to use for food and medicine and that you know how to safely prepare them. It’s also important to honor land permissions and consider your impact when harvesting herbs in the wild. Please explore and observe these plants during your time in Moran State Park but refrain from harvesting them there. If harvesting in another location, be sure you have permission to harvest. Never harvest more than 10% of a plant population in an area to encourage sustainable re-growth.

Contributed by Kristy Bredin

Featured Plants – Pinesap and Ghostpipe

Plants get their energy from the sun, and that’s why they’re green, right? Not so fast! Some plants get their energy by digesting fungi in soil, completely lack chlorophyll, and are definitely not green. These peculiar mushroom eating plants include two species in the Genus Monotropa (which means one-way or one direction) that are found under deep forest canopy in Moran State Park. The more common of the two is Monotropa uniflora (one-way, one flower), which is a single-flowered white plant that grows in clusters also known as ghost pipe. Ghost pipe has a slender waxy white stem and a single downward facing flower. When bruised or when it goes to seed the entire plant turns black. Because of their waxy pallor they are often mistaken for fungi, but are in fact relatives of salal and blueberries. While ghost pipe is found in deep forests throughout the islands, its cousin Monotropa hypopitys (fringed pinesap) is most common in Moran State Park and rarely found on other islands. Unlike ghost pipe, pinesap has many flowers and starts off pink as it comes up and blooms a pale yellow. Like its cousin it is completely lacking in chlorophyll and gets all of its energy by eating soil fungi. You can contribute to our understanding of the ecology of these unusual plants by reporting where you see them using the Moran State Park Epicollect App! Download the Epicollect5 App from Google Play or the App Store, select Add Project and type in Moran State Park. With this app you can share photos and locations of interesting species in the Park including our mysterious fungi-munching Monotropas.

Contributed by Madrona Murphy, Photos by Russel Barsh